The Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar cycle (the moon movement) unlike the more known Gregorian Calendar which is based on the Sun Cycle. The is why the start of Islamic months are confirmed by viewing the moon. Ramadan is the most important month of the calendar, because it is the fasting month for muslims, and the start and finish have to be confirmed by viewing of the moon.
We are used to hearing the names of the months in the Islamic Calendar, but half the time we don't know where the names come from. Here is a short explanation, share the information with your friends and family, and it will be a good deed for you.
Named "Moharram" because the Arabs, before islam, forbid (Haram) fighting in that month.
Named "Safar, derived >from the word Whistle", because the whistling of the wind could be heard in the Arabs neighbourhoods when it is empty, when they go to battle, or search for food, or going to higher ground to escape the summer heat.
رَبيع الأول Rabee' Awal:
Named like this because it was named in the season of Spring "Rabee'" and it was kept like this.
Rabee' Al Akhir رَبيع الآخِر::.
Was named "Rabee's Al Akhir" because its name was also given in the spring. Named Al Akhir "the last" and not Thani "second" so it would not give you the expectations of a third coming.
Jomada Al Oula جُمادى الأولى:
Named like this because its name was made in the winter where the water freezes "tajammad" and the name was kept.
Jomada Al Akhira جُمادى الآخِرة:
named also in the winter, and named Al Akhira as it is the last Jomada, and there is no third.
Named like this because the Arabs used to stop fighting in this month. When you "Rajab" something, you honour it and respect it.
Named like this because in that month the Arabs used to "Tatashaab" meaning to spread and move around, for war and other business, after taking it easy in the month of Rajab.
Ramadan, the holliest month of the Islamic Calendar, named after the "Ramdaa' ", which the period of great hear. When you say Ramadat the Stones, it means it got extremely hot due to sunshine.
Named "Shawwal" because it happens in a period where the milk of the herds is less than usual "tashawalat".
Tho Al Ko'da ذُو القعدة:
.Named like this because the Arabs rest (tak'od) and would not fight fight in this month, it is one of the Holy months where fighting is forbidden.
Tho Al Hojja ذُو الحجة:
Named "Tho Al Hojja" because the Arabs were introduced to the Hajj (pilgrimage) in that month.